The Kalapooian families occupied the Willamette valley above the falls. They practiced the flattening of the head, and lived on game and roots.

A. The following tribes are known to belong to this division:

1. Ahant-chu-yuk, lived on Pudding river, a tributary of the Willamette river, Oregon.

2. At-fal-a-tu [or Tu-al-a-ti], on the Tualitin river and vicinity in Washington county, Oregon.

3. Cal-a-poo-ya, occupied the watershed between the Umpqua and Willamette rivers in Lane and Douglas counties, Oregon.

4. Che-la-me-la, lived on Long Tom creek, a tributary of the Willamette river, in Lane and Benton counties, Oregon.

5. Che-pe-na-fa, lived at the forks of St. Mary's river near Corvallis, Benton county, Oregon.

6. Lak-muit, lived on the Lakmuit [Luckiamute] river, a tributary of the Willamette, in Polk county, Oregon.

7. San-ti-am, lived on the Santiam river, Linn county, Oregon.

8. Yam-el, lived on the Yamhill river, Yamhill county, Oregon.

9. Yon-kal-la, lived on Elk creek and Calapooya creek in Douglas county, Oregon.

B. The following tribes are supposed to have also belonged to the Kalapooian family:

1. Che-ma-pho, is mentioned in the Dayton treaty of 1855 as a Kalapooian band.

2. Che-me-ke-tas, is supposed to have lived near Salem, Marion county, Oregon.

3. [sic; has been completely skipped over by the author and the next number is 4]

4. Chil-ly-Chan-dize, lived on the Willamette river [Ross' Adventures, p. 236, 1847].

5. Lap-tam-bif, lived on the Mohawk river, Lane county, Oregon.

6. Leesh-te-losh, lived near the headwaters of the Willamette river, Oregon.

7. Pee-you, lived on the Willamette river, Oregon.

8. Shee-hees, is mentioned by Ross [Adventures, p. 236, 1849].

9. Shook-an-y, mentioned by Ross [Adventures, p. 236, 1849].

10. Win-ne-fel-ly, tribe participated in the Dayton treaty of 1855.


1. The upper Kute-nai [or Kit-o-naqua] [Kootenais].

2. The Lower Ku-te-nai [or Ako-qtl-at-l-go]. These tribes lived mostly in British Columbia, but also in Northern Idaho and the Northwestern corner of Montana.


A small family of Indian tribes residing in the neighborhood of Coos bay and on the lower part of the Coquille river, Coos county, Oregon.

1. Me-lu-kitz, on the north side of Coos bay.

2. Mul-luk, on the north side of the Coquille river.

3. Nah-su-mi, on the south side of the Coquille river.


This family claimed as their hunting ground all the Klamath county, and part of Lake and Crook counties, and a strip of California along the Oregon border.

1. Klam-ath, resided chiefly on the Upper Klamath lake in Klamath county, Oregon.

2. Mo-doc, resided on the lakes along the border of Oregon and California; in 1864 the Modocs joined with the Klamaths in ceding their territory to the United States, and both divisions were put on the Klamath Indian reservation; but in 1870 a chief named "Kintpuash," but commonly called "Captain Jack," led a portion of the Modocs back to the California border, and the attempt to bring them back brought on the Modoc war of 1872 and 3.


The name Salish was originally applied to the Flathead tribe in Montana, and was afterwards applied to other tribes speaking their language. Those in Washington, Oregon and Idaho were:

A. Okinagan group:

1. O-kin-a-gan, occupied Okinagan county, Washington, west of the Okinagan river.

2. Colville, lived in Stevens county, Washington, from Kettle falls to the Spokane river.

3. Nes-pe-lim, or San-poil, lived on the Sans-Poil river in Ferry county and across the Columbia river in Lincoln county, Washington.

4. Sen-i-jex-tee, or Snai-chek-stik, lived on both sides of the Columbia river from Kettle falls to the international boundary, in Ferry and Stevens counties, Washington.


1. Spo-kan, the name applied to several small bodies of Indians on and near the Spokane river in Stevens, Spokane and Lincoln counties, Washington.

2. Kal-is-pel, or Pend d'Oreilles, lived in Bonner county, Idaho, and the eastern part of Stevens county, Washington.

3. Skits-wish, or Coeur d'Alenes, lived in Kootenai county, Idaho. They are known as the Coeur d'Alenes, the French word for "Awl Heart," an expression used by some chief to express the size of a trader's heart.


1. Pis-quow, or We-nat-chi, lived on the Wenatchee river, in Kittitas and Okinagan counties, Washington.

2. Sin-ki-use, lived on the east side of the Columbia river in Washington, from Fort Okinakane to Point Eaton.

3. Me-thow, lived on the Methow river in Okinagan county, and around Lake Chelan in Chelan county, Washington.


1. Clal-lam, lived on the south side of Puget Sound.

2. Lum-mi, lived in Whatcom county, Washington.

3. Sam-ish, lived on the Samish river, Skagit county, Washington.

4. Sem-i-ah-moo, lived around Samiahmoo Bay, Whatcom county, Washington.


1. Nis-qual-li, lived on the Nisqualli river in Thurston and Pierce counties, Washington.

2. Swam-ish, lived near Seattle, Washington, which was named from a chief of this and the Suquamish tribes.

3. Puy-al-lup, lived in Pierce county, Washington.

4. Skag-it, lived in Skagit county, Washington.

5. Sno-qual-mu, or Sno-quam-ish, occupied the upper branches of the Snoqualmie river, King county, Washington.

6. Squax-on, lived on the peninsula between Hood's Canal and Case Inlet, Mason county, Washington.


The Twana lived along both sides of Hood's Canal, Mason county, Washington.


1. Quin-ault, lived in Chehalis county, Washington.

2. Quait-so, lived on the coast in Chehalis county, Washington.

3. Hump-tu-lips, lived on the Humptulips river, in Chehalis county, Washington.

4. Lower Che-ha-lis, lived around Gray's harbor, Chehalis county, Washington.

5. Sat-sop, lived on Satsop river, a tributary to the Chehalis.

6. Upper Che-ha-lis [Kwa-i-a-ilk], on the upper courses of the Chehalis river.

Cow-litz, lived on the Cowlitz river in Lewis and Cowlitz counties, Washington.


1. Till-a-mook, lived in Tillamook county, Oregon.

2. Si-letz, lived on the Siletz river, Lincoln county, Oregon.

Also called the Sciatogas, or Sait-u-ka.

1. Nez Perces [Sahaptin or Chopunnish], was the most prominent tribe of which the following bands are most noted:

A. Al-pow-a, in Garfield and Asotin counties, Washington.

B. As-su-ti, living on Assuti creek [Asotin county, Washington]. They joined Chief Joseph in the Nez Perce war of 1877.

C. Ka-mi-ah, lived at the present site of Kamiah, Lewis county, Idaho.

D. Lam-ta-ma, living on White Bird creek, a tributary of the Salmon river, Idaho county, Idaho.

E. Lap-wai, living on Lapwai creek, Nez Perce county, Idaho.

F. Wil-le-wah, living in Wallowa county, Oregon, who under chief Joseph were the leaders of the Nez Perce war of 1877.

2. Klick-i-tat, lived in Klickitat and Skamania counties, Washington.

3. Pa-Loose, lived on the Palouse river and the northern side of the Snake river in Whitman, Adams and Franklin counties, Washington, and Latah county, Idaho.

3. [sic; three is listed twice by the author]

Ten-i-no, occupied the valley of the Des Chutes river in Wasco, Sherman, Crook, Gilliam and Morrow counties, Oregon.

4. Ty-i-gh, occupied the Tygh river and tributaries in Wasco county, Oregon.

5. Um-a-til-la, lived on the Umatilla river in Umatilla county, Oregon.

6. Wal-la Wal-la, lived on the lower part of the Walla Walla river and on the east side of the Columbia river in Walla Walla county, Washington.

7. Yak-im-a [or Cut-sah-nim], lived along the Columbia river and on the upper branches of the Yakima and the Wenatchee rivers in Benton, Grant, Douglas, Chelan, Kittitas and Yakima counties, Washington.

This family was widely extended over several states.

1. Sho-shone, occupied the entire central and southwestern part of Idaho.

2. Ban-nocks: [a] occupied the eastern part of Idaho. Bannock, Bear, Bingham, Bonneville, Fremont and Oneida counties. [b] Occupied the Salmon river, these in 1878 revolted and caused a war.

3. Snakes ["Pai-ute"], consisting chiefly of the Yahuskin and Wal-papi bands who occupied Southeastern Oregon.


This family of Indians extended from California into Jackson county, Oregon, in the vicinity of Medford.


A small family of Indian tribes, sometimes called the Upper Rogue River Indians living in Josephine county, and adjoining parts of Curry, Jackson and Douglas counties, Oregon.


The name is derived from their word "good," which Captain Cook heard at Friendly Cove, Nootka Sound, and supposed to be the name of the tribe. These Indians pursued and killed the whale. Some of the tribes extended into the western part of Clallam county, Washington.


1. Cay-use, lived on the headwaters of the Umatilla, Walla Walla and Grande Ronde rivers in Umatilla and Union counties, Oregon, and Walla Walla county, Washington. Their territory also extended from the Blue mountains to the Des Chutes river. It was some of these Indians who murdered Dr. Whitman in 1847.

2. Mo-la-la, lived from Mount Hood to Mount Scott and on Molala river, Clackamas county, Oregon.


1. Ya-quin-a, lived about Yaquina bay and river, Lincoln county, Oregon.

2. Al-se-a, lived along the Alsea river in Lincoln county, Oregon.

3. Si-u-slaw, lived along the Siuslaw river in Lane county, Oregon.

4. Ku-i-tish, lived along the lower Umpqua river in Douglas county, Oregon.

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